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The area that now forms the Borough of Epsom & Ewell was in earlier times made up of three principal manors :-
Cuddington Manor whose original village, manor and church were swept away by Henry VIII for the creation of Nonsuch Palace
Epsom Manor including the submanors of Brettgrave and Horton (which also contained the estates of Durdans and Woodcote);
Ewell Manor including the submanors of Bottals, Fitznells and Shawford (Ruxley) together with a parcel of land at Kingswood
These manors broadly followed the parish boundaries but over the centuries as different parcels of land have changed hands, the manor boundaries also changed. In more recent times some manors may have been split between two or morelocal authority areas,or example, the old Cuddington Manor and Parish is split between Epsom & Ewell, the London Borough of Sutton, and the London Borough of Kingston upon Thames.
Although a manor may have been farmed as one entity, it is also possible that the owner let out or sold off a number of fields or parcels of land to be managed as a sub-manor. These sub-manors might have been sold on or taken or bought back by the original lord of the manor. Over the centuries some manorial records have been lost or destroyed and those that do exist do not always make it clear were the boundaries were. A boundary could have been a feature such as a ditch or a row of trees which, with modern housing developments, has long gone. From existing research we can reasonably define the main manors within the current day Epsom & Ewell Borough and that of the Horton sub manor but not the other sub manors.
This article was researched and written by Peter Reed, 2006
The following extract is taken from the article on Cuddington Parish in Victoria History of the Counties of England: The County of Surrey (Vol. 3) which was published in 1911
The earliest mention of CUDDINGTON is in connexion with Chertsey Monastery, the alleged first endowment of which in 675 by Frithwald, subregulus of Surrey, and Bishop Erkenwald included thirty dwellings at Ewell cum 'Cotinton.' The confirmation of this charter by Athelstan in 933 mentions the village of 'Cudintone'; and Edward the Confessor in 1062 confirmed to the monastery six dwellings at 'Cudintone.' No further mention of Chertsey in connexion with Cuddington occurs after this date, however, and in the Domesday Survey it is declared to have been held in the time of Edward the Confessor by Earl Leofwine, the younger brother of Harold. At the date of the Survey it was held by Ilbert de Laci, lord of Pontefract, of Odo of Bayeux, and on the forfeiture of his estates for high treason by Robert son of Ilbert, was bestowed by Henry I on Hugh de Laval.
In 1203 Guy de Laval forfeited his English estates for joining with the French king against John, who in the same year granted Cuddington to William de St. Michael, who was to render to Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester (who had claimed the estates of Guy as his right by inheritance), the same farm which he, William, had been wont to render to Guy. Laurence de St. Michael was holding land in Surrey in 1233, and in 1236-7 he appears as party to a fine concerning lands in Cuddington. He or his son died in 1283, leaving a widow Margaret, four sons-Laurence, William, Thomas, and John-and four daughters. It was probably the eldest son Laurence who in 1289 sought to replevy his land in Cuddington which had been taken into the king's hands for default. In 1331, 1332, and 1333 courts were held in the name of Thomas de St. Michael, who in 1333 settled the manor upon himself for life, and after his death upon Laurence son of John de St. Michael and Joan his wife and their heirs. In 1337 the manor was held by Laurence, who appears indifferently in records of this period under the name of Codington (Cuddington) or St. Michael, the latter, however, occurring but rarely after this date.
Codington. Gules a cross or fretty gules.
In 1355 courts were held in the name of Sir Simon de Codington (Sheriff of Surrey in 1353 and 1362) and Katherine his wife. Sir Simon married, secondly, Idonea, and died before 1378, in which year the manor was settled by trustees on Ralph son of Simon (Sheriff of Surrey in 1400) and Anne his wife.
In 1470 the manor was surrendered to John Codington by his mother Margaret widow of Thomas Codington. The manor was finally sold in 1538 by Richard Codington and Elizabeth his wife to Henry VIII, who annexed it to the honour of Hampton Court, and commenced there the erection of the magnificent palace of Nonsuch.
In 1547 a messuage and lands in the manor of Nonsuch alias Cuddington were granted by Edward VI to Sir Thomas Cawarden (who was Sheriff of Surrey in 1547) to hold for 21 years for a rent of £5 5s. 8d. In 1550 Cawarden was appointed Keeper of the King's House of Nonsuch, 'called the Banketyng House within the Park there.'
The Banqueting House was a separate building from the Palace, which was not completed until later. In 1556 the reversion of Cawarden's lease, with the additions of the capital mansion of Nonsuch or Nonsuch Place, with appurtenances in Nonsuch, Ewell, Cuddington, and Cheam, and all that park called the Little Park of Nonsuch, was bestowed on Henry, twelfth Earl of Arundel, Lord Chamberlain to Henry VIII and Lord High Steward of the Household to Mary and Elizabeth. The Earl of Arundel died in 1580, having bequeathed all his manors and lands to his son-in-law Lord Lumley, upon whom he had already settled Nonsuch. Lord Lumley died in 1609, and was succeeded by his nephew, Splandian Lloyd. The latter dying without issue was succeeded by his brother Henry Lloyd, whose grandson of the same name died in 1704. Robert Lumley Lloyd, son of Henry, was rector of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and chaplain to the Duke of Bedford, whose patronage he acknowledged by bequeathing to him all his possessions in Surrey, including this estate. In 1755 the manor, rectory, and advowson of the vicarage were sold by the duke to Edward Northey of Epsom, who died in 1772, leaving this estate to his son William Northey. The latter died in 1808, and was succeeded by his cousin William Northey, on whose death the estate passed to his brother, Rev. Edward Northey, Canon of Windsor. Edward Richard Northey, son of the latter, was holding the manor in 1821, and his son, Rev. E. W. Northey, M.A., of Epsom, is lord of the manor at the present day.
Lloyd. Quarterly or and azure four harts countercoloured.
The whole of the former village of Cuddington, with its mansion and church, were swept away by Henry VIII to make room for the palace afterwards known as Nonsuch, and its two parks-the Great Park or Worcester Park (containing 911 acres), and the Little Park (containing 671 acres). The palace was never completed by Henry VIII, but had alread attained sufficient splendour to evoke from Leland the lines
'Hanc quia non habeat similem, laudare Britanni
Saepe solent, nuliique parem cognomine dicunt.'
During the next reign Sir Thomas Cawarden, Keeper of the Banqueting House, in accordance with a royal mandate entertained there 'at the Quenes Majestie's House,' the French ambassador, M. de Noailles, and his wife.
In 1556 the reversion of Cawarden's lease was granted to the Earl of Arundel, with the additional grant of the Little Park and the palace (vide supra) which he is said to have completed. He in 1559 entertained there Queen Elizabeth, when, we are told, 'her grace had as gret chere every nyght and bankets; but ye sonday at nyght my lord of Arundell made her a grete bankett at ys coste as ever was sene, for soper, bankete, and maske, wt drums and flutes, and all ye mysyke yt cold be, tyll mydnyght; and as for chere, has not bene sene nor heard. On Monday was a great supper made for her, but before night she stood at her standing in the further park, and there she saw a course. At nyght was a play of the Chylderyn of Powlles and theyr mysyke master Sebastian Phelyps and Mr. Haywode; and after, a grete banket, wt drumes and flutes and the goodly bankets and dishes as costely as ever was sene, and gyldyd. . . . My Lord of Arundell gayfe to ye Quene grace a cubard of plate.' Queen Elizabeth paid frequent subsequent visits to Nonsuch, and in 1590-2 purchased the palace and park of John, Lord Lumley, heir of the Earl of Arundel, in exchange for lands to the value of £534.
In 1599 Mr. Roland White wrote to Robert Sydney: 'Her Majestie is returned again to None-such, which of all other places she likes best'; and it was on the occasion of this visit that the Earl of Essex, having returned from Ireland without the queen's permission, burst into her bedchamber at ten o'clock in the morning, and though received kindly at the time, was committed four days later to the custody of the Lord Keeper.
Lord Lumley was appointed Keeper of the Palace and Little Park by James I, who was frequently resident there for hunting and racing, which probably took place on Banstead Downs (vide Banstead).
On 1 December 1606 the Earl of Worcester was appointed Keeper of the Great Park at Nonsuch, whence no doubt it acquired the name Worcester Park, and the lodge in it the name of Worcester House.
The estate formed part of the jointure of Queen Henrietta Maria, and was visited by Charles I in 1625, 1629, 1630, and 1632. During the Commonwealth the palace was at first leased to Algernon Sidney for £150 per annum. The Government soon afterwards assigned the whole place to Lilburne's regiment, then in Scotland, as security for the men's pay. A letter is extant from Colonel Robert Lilburne to General Lambert, in which he offers on behalf of the regiment to sell Nonsuch to him. The men, it was thought, would be willing to accept 12s. in the £ for their debentures. Certainly the Little Park and Palace were purchased by Major-General Lambert, and in 1654-6 the Great Park and Worcester House were purchased by Colonel Thomas Pride, who died in 1658 at Worcester House, the house in the Great Park.
At the Restoration Nonsuch House and Parks were restored to Queen Henrietta Maria. In 1663 the reversion of part of the estate (under the name of Nonsuch Great Park or Worcester Park, land called the Great Park Meadow, and the mansion-house called Worcester House) was leased by Charles II for a term of 99 years to Sir Robert Long, his late companion in exile, and at this date Chancellor of the Exchequer; one of the conditions of the lease being that Sir Robert should from time to time convert part of the premises into pasture without destroying the trees and bushes, so that the same might become fit for deer in case the king were minded to restore and make the same park a park as formerly, Sir Robert to be keeper of the park and have herbage and pannage. During the plague year of 1665 Nonsuch Palace was fitted up temporarily for the offices of the Exchequer. In 1670 Sir Robert Long pleaded for another life in his lease, at the same time representing that during the late disturbed times the site had been converted into tillage, the wood all down, and that he, Sir Robert, had compounded with the queen for her interest, bought out the keepers, and paid £2,500 for repairs of the house.
Sir Robert Long died in 1673, and his will mentions that he settled his lease on his nephew. But in 1670 the palace and fee simple of both parks were bestowed by Charles II on Viscount Grandison and Henry Brounker, in trust for Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, in that year created Baroness of Nonsuch, by whom as a means of settling her pecuniary difficulties the house was entirely dismantled, its contents sold, and the park divided up into farms.
In 1710 the parks were held by Charles, Duke of Grafton, grandson of the duchess, whose son in 1731 sold Worcester Park to John Walter his former steward. John Walter died in 1745, and was succeeded by his son George, afterwards knighted. The latter left two daughters, one of whom died single in 1749, while the other married Rev. - Clarke, who sold to Mr. Taylor, from whom it passed to William Taylor, who died in 1764. Mr. Taylor set up here a large gunpowder factory. His heir, William Taylor, built a new house, called Worcester Park, in 1797. The property has long been divided. Worcester Park House is now the residence of Miss Wheeler.
Farmer of Nonsuch. Argent a fesse sable between three lions' heads razed gules.
The Little Park was sold by the Duke of Grafton in 1731 to Joseph Thomson, who built a house here and left it to his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Whateley, on condition that he should take priest's orders. On the death of Mr. Whateley the estate was sold to Mr. Farmer, who built a new house, and is now the property of his descendant, Captain William R. G. Farmer.
Some idea of the splendour of Nonsuch Palace may be gathered from the eulogies of contemporary writers, such as Leland and Camden, while it is described at length by Braun in Civitates Orbis Terrarum. The Survey of 1650 gives a detailed account of the house and grounds. The commissioners' admiration of the splendid building and anxiety for its preservation can be clearly seen through the dry official language of their report. The 'capitall messuage or royal mansion house, commonly called Nonsuch [they say], consists of one fayer stronge and large structure of building of freestone of two large stories high, well wrought and battled with stone and covered with blue slate, standing round a court of 150 foote long and 132 foote broad, paved with stone, commonly called the Outward Courte,' and also of 'one other faire and very curious structure or building of two stories high, the lower storie whereof is of good and well wrought freestone, and the higher of wood, richly adorned and set forth and garnished with variety of statues, pictures, and other antick formes of excellent art and workmanship, and of no small cost; all which building lying almost upon a square, is covered with blue slate, and incloseth one faire and large court of one hundred thirty seaven foot broad, and one hundred and sixteen foot long, all paved with freestone, commonly called the Inner Court.'
The uses of the various rooms are noted; in the outer court on the ground floor were the buttery, the wine cellar, and fifteen other rooms occupied by Lady Holland's servants, the housekeeper, the gentlemen ushers, the quarter waiter, the groom porter, and Mr. Henry Jermyn. On the first floor twenty-one rooms are mentioned, three for Lady Denbigh, three for Lady Holland, a dining-room, drawing-room, and bedchamber for Lady Carlisle, two rooms for her servants, four rooms for the lord chamberlain, Lord Dorset, two for the queen's almoner, two for the maids of honour, and two for the housekeeper.
The outer court was entered through a three-story gatehouse, 'very strong and graceful,' with embattled turrets at the angles, and a large room on the top floor 'very pleasant and delectable for prospect.'
The rooms of the inner court, being the royal apartments, were 'very faire and large,' many of them panelled and having 'spacious lights both inwards and outwards,' i.e. towards the court and towards the park. Another gatehouse stood between the two courts, an ascent of eight steps leading up from the outer to the inner court. This gatehouse was of freestone with corner turrets and a clock turret in the middle, and was 'of most excellent workmanship and a very special ornament to Nonsuch house.'
The rooms of the inner court were on the ground floor a guard chamber, two rooms for Lady Cary, two for 'Madam Nurse' the queen's back stairs, two for Madam Vautlet the queen's dresser, two for Dr. 'Myerne,' two for Madam Conget, two for the queen's priests, two for the master of the horse, two for the queen's robes, two for Madam Cyvet, two for the queen's 'querrier,' the queen's kitchen, a room for 'Mr. Cooke," and one for the queen's waiters. On the first floor were the presence chamber, the privy closet, the privy chamber, the privy gallery, the queen's bedchamber, the queen's back stairs, the king's bedchamber and back stairs, the queen's chapel, and two rooms for the Marchioness Hambleton. The inner court had wooden battlements covered with lead, adding 'a very great grace and special ornament to the whole building,' and had large angle turrets at east and west, five stories high, of timber covered with lead, 'the chiefe ornament of the whole house.' In the west turret was a large lead cistern, serving the whole house, including a white marble fountain in the inner court, supported by two brass dragons, and having a lead-lined marble basin on three steps. A 'belcone' in the middle of the privy gallery seems to have been specially designed to give a view of this fountain.
In addition to these two courts was a third and smaller kitchen court, adjoining the outer court on the east. The lay-out of the grounds is described. In front of the outer court was a stone balustrade with a bowling-green, 'railed with good postes, rails, and lattices of wood,' from which an avenue of trees led directly to the park gate. The privy garden, enclosed by a 14-foot brick wall, lay round and adjoining unto the three outsides of the inward court,' and was divided into 'allyes, quarters, and rounds set about with thorne edges,' rather neglected at the time, as was to be expected, but easily capable of repair. To the north lay the kitchen garden, also walled, and to the west a wilderness, its trees lately felled by 'one Mr. Bond, one of the contractors for sale of the late king's goods.' North of the wilderness was an orchard.
In the privy garden, on the west side of the great turret at the west angle of the inner court, was a marble basin with a pelican through which the water was supplied, and near it a 'piramide' or spired pinnacle of marble. There were also two other marble 'piramides' called the 'Fawlcon perches,' having between them a white marble fountain set round with 'six trees called black trees, which trees beare no fruite but only a very pleasant flower.'
In the highest part of the park was a foursquare banqueting house, timber-built in three stories, with three cellars on the ground floor, a hall and three other rooms above, and on the top floor five rooms, with a lantern on the roof. Nearly all the rooms were panelled and amply lighted, and at each of the four corners of the house was a 'belcone placed for prospect.' The banqueting house was surrounded by a brick wall with projecting angle bastions. This wall is the only part now remaining. There were also a well-house, 'with a wheel for winding up of water,' and a wash-house close by.
Other buildings in the park were the under-house-keeper's house, with the saucery house for the yeomen of the saucer, and a well-house with a deep well, the stables, 'a little remote upon the north-east,' with barns and outhouses, and the keeper's lodge. All the buildings were in a very good state, and 'not fit to be demolished or taken down,' and the value of their materials was estimated at £7,020.
By 1665 Evelyn speaks of the gardens as 'ruined,' and though he remarks upon the wonderful preservation of the bas-reliefs in plaster, considering their age, he implies that they were perishing. The house must have needed a great outlay to keep it in repair. The description and the picture alike convey the idea of a somewhat barbaric magnificence overloaded with ornament.
The house was destroyed by orders of the Duchess of Cleveland, but not immediately after she received it. That some of it, or of the separate banqueting house, was standing about the time of James II is proved by a MS. note in Aubrey's Wiltshire, by P. le Neve, Norrey, who writes: 'I saw it in James II's time or thereabouts. It was done with plaister work made of rye dough, in imagery, very costly.' As late as 1757 the foundations of it could be traced round the courtyards.
The following extract is taken from the article on Epsom Parish in Victoria History of the Counties of England: The County of Surrey (Vol. 3) which was published in 1911.
In 727 Frithwald, sub-regulus of Surrey, and Bishop Erkenwald, are said to have granted to their newly founded abbey of Chertsey twenty mansas of land in Epsom: this was confirmed by King Edgar in 967, and in the Domesday Survey EPSOM is mentioned among the possessions of Chertsey Abbey. Henry I granted the abbot leave to keep dogs on all his land inside the forest and outside, to catch foxes, hares, pheasants, and cats, and to inclose his park there and have all the deer he could catch, also to have all the wood he needed from the king's forests. In the reign of Edward I the abbot's right to free warren in Epsom was called in question, and it was found that only in his park he had the right; this was confirmed later (1285). In 1291 the abbot resumed the possession of 9 acres of land (part of the demesne land of the abbey) which he, or a predecessor, had granted to Hugh de la Lane. In 1323-4 the abbot brought a suit against John de la Lane, bailiff of the queen, for distraining him by 1,500 sheep, for his default in not appearing when impleaded in the queen's court of Banstead, and driving them as far as Banstead, where for lack of nourishment some of them died; the abbot was adjudged £1 in compensation.
Party or and argent St. Paul's sword argent its hilt or crossed with St. Peter's keys gules and azure.
Grants of land in Epsom were made to the abbot in 1338 by Peter atte Mulle and Richard de Horton. In 1535 the rents of the manor were valued at £20 12s. 5½d. and the perquisites of the court amounted to £2 10s. 4d.; two years later the manor was surrendered to the king.
Henry VIII granted it in 1537 to Sir Nicholas Carew, K.G., in tail male; but in 1539, in consequence of his attainder, the manor returned to the Crown, and the next year was annexed to the honour of Hampton Court. Queen Mary, however, granted it in 1576 to Francis Carew (afterwards knighted), eldest son of Nicholas, and his heirs male, with reversion to the queen and her successors. In 1589 the reversion (Francis Carew being unmarried) was granted to Edward Darcy, groom of the Privy Chamber and son of Carew's sister Mary, who held the manor after the death of Sir Francis in 1611 and died seised in 1612, having settled it on his wife Mary with remainder to his second son Christopher and contingent remainder to his eldest son Robert.
Robert died in 1618 seised of the reversion of the manor after the death of Mary widow of Edward, from which it appears that Christopher, who was alive in 1623, must have quitclaimed to Robert. Robert's widow and son Edward levied a fine of the manor in 1632. The rent of the manor (£40) was settled on Queen Anne by James I, and on Queen Catherine by Charles II. Edward Darcy sold the manor to Mrs. Anne Mynne, widow of George Mynne of Horton Manor, and daughter of Sir Robert Parkhurst, and she left it by will to her daughter Elizabeth wife of Richard Evelyn, brother to John Evelyn the diarist. He resided at Woodcote. Courts of the manor were held in his name in 1667 and 1668. Elizabeth survived him and held courts as lady of the manor until 1691; she, at her death in 1692, devised the estate to Christopher Buckle of Banstead and his son Christopher as trustees for her sister Ann for her life, with remainder first to her nephew John Lewknor and then to John Parkhurst of Catesby, co. Northants. The trustees held the courts of the manor until 1706, when John Parkhurst succeeded to the estate; his grandson John was holding it in 1725.
This John devised the manor to Sir Charles Kemys Tynte, bart., and another trustee for his wife Ricarda during her lifetime, after her death to be sold and the proceeds divided between his two younger sons. He died in 1765, and in 1770 the manor was sold to Sir Joseph Mawbey, bart., who was succeeded by his son John in 1798. John had no male heir, and was followed first by his daughter Emily and then by Ann, in right of whom her husband, John Ivett Briscoe, held the manor till past the middle of the 19th century. It was afterwards held by his trustees, and then went to Charles Vernon Strange, who held it in 1874. From him it passed to James Stuart Strange, who died in 1908 leaving three daughters.
Two mills were in existence at the time of Domesday, but only one is afterwards mentioned in the records of the manor. Charles II granted Elizabeth Evelyn, then lady of the manor, the right to hold a weekly market and two fairs at Epsom; the grant was renewed by James II, together with a grant to hold a court of pie-powder at each of the fairs.
Epsom Court, the old manor-house, was not sold with the property in 1770, but by a family arrangement descended to the Rev. John Parkhurst, eldest son of John and Ricarda Parkhurst (see above), and the great tithes and the advowson went with it. It is now a farm-house.
The manor of HORTON in this parish belonged to the Abbot and convent of Chertsey, but there seem to be no early records relating to it, unless the lands granted by Richard de Horton in 1338 (vide supra) formed part of it.
According to a charter of the early 15th century, the Abbot and convent of Chertsey owned the hamlet or township of Horton, co. Surrey, with 168 acres of land, 60 acres of pasture lying in common fields of Horton and in two fields called West Crofts and Sampsones, 3 acres of wood called Burnet Grove, 13s. 8d. rent of free tenants there, and 12s. 3d. rent proceeding from the manor of Brettgrave and the lands of Adam Whitlokke in Ewell and 100 acres furze and heath in 'Ebbesham Common' opposite the township of Horton; also another small parcel of land containing 1 rood in 'Ebbesham' near the parish church, parcel of a tenement called Rankyns, with court and view of frankpledge there, 'wayf and strayf' fines, etc. These lands together made the manor of Horton.
In 1440 the abbot granted it to John Merston, the king's esquire, and his wife Rose, and their heirs, to hold of the king by payment of 3d. yearly for all service. Free warren in all the demesne lands of Horton was also granted by the king to John and Rose, and licence to inclose 100 acres of land for a park.
After the death of Rose, who survived her husband, the manor passed to William Merston and his wife Anne; he died in 1495, leaving a son William, who inherited on his mother's death. He died in January 1511-12, leaving Horton to his wife Beatrice for her life, with remainder to his daughter Joan and her heirs. Joan married first Nicholas Mynne, secondly William Sander of Ewell, and died in 1540 leaving a son John by her first marriage, during whose minority William Sander was granted an annuity of £4 issuing from the manor of Horton, with wardship and marriage of the said John. This John Mynne was holding the manor in 1564; he died in 1595, leaving a son and heir William, whose son John succeeded his father in 1618. John married Alice daughter of William Hale and settled various lands and tenements on her, among them the manor-house of Horton; but in order to pay his debts he with the consent of William Hale sold these estates to George Mynne of Woodcote (1626). George Mynne left two daughters, co-heiresses; Elizabeth married Richard Evelyn and Anne married Sir John Lewknor. On the division of the estate the manor of Horton fell to the share of Elizabeth, who, having survived her husband and children, left the manor to Charles Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore, a great-grandson of Anne, daughter of George Mynne of Hertingfordbury, a connexion of her family.
Mynne. Sable a fesse dancetty paly argent and gules of six pieces.
His grandson Charles, the sixth Lord Baltimore, died in 1751, and his son and heir Frederick, Lord Baltimore, who left the country after a celebrated trial in 1768, sold the estates. During the next twenty years Horton Manor changed hands several times, and was finally bought by Mr. Trotter, an upholsterer in Soho; his son James, high sheriff in 1798, succeeded him in 1790. He was succeeded by his son John, M.P. for West Surrey 1841-7, from whom it passed to William S. Trotter. The estate has been recently bought by the London County Council for asylums.
Trotter of Horton. Argent a crescent gules and a chief indented azure with three pierced molets argent therein.
The old manor-house of Horton was a large building surrounded by a moat. It was in the low ground north of Epsom. The Mynnes seem to have lived at Woodcote, for Richard Evelyn married their heiress there in 1648, and he is said to have rebuilt the house at Woodcote. Later, when Woodcote Park had been separated from Horton, Mr. John Trotter, owner of Horton, built a new mansion, called it Horton Place, and inclosed land around it for a park.
The manor of BRETTGRAVE (Bruttegrave, Bertesgrave, Brottesgrave, Bryddesgreve, xiv and xv cent.) belonged to the abbey of Chertsey as parcel of their manor of Epsom. It was held of the Abbot of Chertsey in the reign of Henry III by John de Tichemarsh. Later in the century it was in the tenure of Reginald de Imworth, who died before 1287, leaving a son John, then a minor. In a suit brought in 1346 by the Abbot of Chertsey against Nicholas de Tonstall, Joan his wife, and Thomas de Saye, this John was said to have granted the manor in fee to Henry Gerard, chaplain, and John his illegitimate son, who were holding in the reign of Edward II by services due. After the death of John son of Henry, John the then abbot entered upon the manor as an escheat, and continued his seisin until forcibly and unlawfully disseised by Joan and her first husband, Henry de Saye, who carried off his crops, impounded the beasts from his ploughs, and otherwise persecuted him, until by a writing he released his right in the manor. As the release was obtained by force, and without the consent of the convent, it was not held valid by the jurors, and the abbot recovered seisin of the manor with damages. In the same year the abbot and convent received licence to grant the manor to Guy de Bryan the younger to be held of the king in chief by the rent of 8s. 3d.; they probably reserved to themselves a rent of 12s. 3d. from the manor, as this is afterwards stated to belong to their manor of Horton, and this may have led to Brettgrave being considered a parcel of the manor of Horton, which was denied by the jurors in an inquisition taken in 1517. Guy de Bryan had licence to have Mass celebrated in his chapel in Brettgrave in Epsom in 1348, but in the same year enfeoffed John Gogh and other clerks of the manor, probably in trust for Henry, Earl of Lancaster, who in 1350 received a grant of free warren in his demesne lands of Brettgrave. Henry was created Duke of Lancaster in 1352, and died seised of the manor in 1361. He left no son, and his eldest daughter Maud, wife of the Duke of Bavaria, dying the following year, the estates passed to her only sister Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt, Earl of Richmond, created Duke of Lancaster in 1362, father of Henry IV. The manor thus became part of the Duchy of Lancaster, leases of it being granted by successive kings. Ultimately the fee-simple seems to have been acquired by William Merston, whose father John Merston (vide Horton) had held the lease of it. William died in January 1511-12. It descended through his daughter Joan, wife of Nicholas Mynne, to John Mynne, the great-grandson of Joan. He sold it with the manor of Horton to George Mynne, whose daughter and coheir Elizabeth, wife of Richard Evelyn, owned it in 1652. From that time it may have been merged with the manor of Horton, for now no trace of the manor or place of that name can be found. In a survey of Epsom a boundary point is Brettegravesherne-that is, Brettegrave's Corner, otherwise called Wolfrenesherne. The next mark on the boundary is Abbot's Pit, which on an old map is the name for the disused chalk-pit called Pleasure Pit on the Ordnance map.
Duchy of Lancaster. England with a label azure.
The estate called DURDANS in this parish, held of the manor of Horton, is probably the property consisting of a messuage, a dovecote, two gardens, two orchards, 12 acres of land with meadow, pasture, and wood, which Sir William Mynne, lord of Horton, conveyed to Elizabeth, Lady Berkeley, in 1617. She in 1634-5 settled Durdans on her daughter Theophila, wife of Sir Robert Coke, and her heirs and assigns. Theophila died without issue, Sir Robert Coke surviving. He, by his will of 1652, left Durdans to his nephew George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Berkeley; he also devised a messuage called the Dog House, in Epsom, which he had lately acquired (probably by fine from John and Thomas Hewett), to be fitted up as a library and kept for any of the ministers of the county of Surrey, to use on week-days between sun-rising and sun-setting. The books left for this purpose however, (which probably formed part of the library of his father, the famous lawyer, Sir Edward Coke), seem to have remained at Durdans until 1682, when George, Earl of Berkeley, gave all or part of them to Sion College. George, Earl of Berkeley, entertained Charles II here in 1662, when John Evelyn records in his diary being invited to meet the King and Queen, Duke and Duchess, Prince Rupert, Prince Edward, and abundance of noblemen. Charles II also dined with the Earl of Berkeley at Durdans in 1664. This was probably at the old house, for the Earl of Berkeley is said to have built a new residence with materials from the palace of Nonsuch, which was pulled down by the Duchess of Cleveland after 1669. During the Earl's tenure of Durdans, it was the scene of the notorious intrigue between his daughter, Lady Henrietta Berkeley, and her brother-in-law, Lord Grey of Wark. By will of 1698 the earl left the property to his son Charles, afterwards earl, who in 1702 sold Durdans with 'the little park paled in' to Charles Turner of Kirkleatham, co. York. He in 1708 conveyed it to John, Duke of Argyll and Earl of Greenwich, reserving the Dogghouse or Dagghouse Farm. Before 1712 it seems to have been acquired by Lord Guilford, and Bishop Willis's Visitation calls him a resident of Epsom in 1725. His son, Lord North and Guilford, succeeded him in 1729. He was lord of the bedchamber to Frederick, Prince of Wales, from 1730 to 1751, during which time the prince seems to have had a loan or lease of the house, but the tradition that he owned it is incorrect.
Alderman Belchier pulled down Lord Berkeley's house after 1747. The new house was bought by Mr. Dalbiac in 1764, and later, in 1799, was acquired by Mr. George Blackman, who sold it in 1819 to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, bart., M.P. From the cousins and heirs of his son Arthur Heathcote it was bought by Lord Rosebery in 1874, and he is the present owner.
Primrose, Earl of Rosebery. Vert three primroses or within the royal tressure of Scotland for Primrose, quartered with Argent a lion sable with a forked tail for Cressy.
The capital messuage of WOODCOTE in Epsom was held of the manor of Horton. In the first half of the 16th century it belonged to one John Ewell of Horton, and continued in his family until 1591, when it was the cause of litigation between Agnes Tyther, a descendant of John Ewell, and Roger Lamborde. It was in the possession of John Mynne, lord of the manor of Horton, in 1597, and he settled it on his son William on his marriage. It passed with Horton Manor to Elizabeth wife of Richard Evelyn (1648), who built there a new mansion. Mrs. Evelyn bequeathed Woodcote to Lord Baltimore, a remote connexion of her family. After the seventh Lord Baltimore left England in 1771 it was sold to Mr. Monk, then to Mr. Nelson, in 1777 to Mr. Arthur Cuthbert, and in 1787 to Mr. Lewis Teissier, a merchant of London, having been separated from the manor of Horton. Mr. Teissier's son, created by Louis XVIII the Baron de Teissier, was owner at the beginning of last century. It was sold by the Baron de Teissier in 1855 to Mr. Robert Brookes, and is now the property of his son, Mr. Herbert Brookes, J.P.
The following extract is taken from the article on Ewell Parish in Victoria History of the Counties of England: The County of Surrey (Vol. 3) which was published in 1911.
The manor of EWELL is named in Domesday as part of the royal demesne, and as such William I secured it as the alleged heir of Edward the Confessor. Henry II granted it to the Prior and canons of Merton in frankalmoign and as free from aids and customs as it had been when Crown property. This grant was augmented by one from Richard I of 101 acres of land, without impeachment of assart and quit of all aids and escheats, etc. Henry III granted to the prior the right of free warren in his manor of Ewell, this grant being confirmed by Edward I.
Richard tenth Earl of Arundel, who was executed as a traitor in 1398, held the manor of the Prior and convent of Merton at the time of his death.
With the manor of Ewell Henry II had granted to the convent of Merton, as parcels of the same manor, two pieces of land called Fifhide and Selswood (Shelwood). In the reign of Henry III the prior claimed that the men on these lands were his villeins and owed him villeins' service; this the men denied, affirming that they owed him only the service of free men, and that what the men of Ewell, who were their equals, gave they would give, and no more. An inquisition held later on the services due to the Prior of Merton determined that the men of Selswood and Fifhide were subject to the tax of Peterpence, and that they might not marry son or daughter out of the township without the prior's licence, but that their taxation should be the same as that of the men of Ewell.
At the dissolution of Merton in 1538, the prior surrendered all the lands of the convent to the king, and this manor was annexed to the honour of Hampton Court, Henry purchasing from William Cooper his lease of the manor. In 1540 Ralph Sadler was appointed bailiff of the manor, and he was granted a lease for twenty-one years of the site of the manor where not enclosed in Nonsuch Park.
Edward VI granted a lease of the site of Ewell Manor to Henry Collier and Agnes his wife for the rent of 69s. 9d. yearly, which lease was renewed by Philip and Mary. In 1563 Elizabeth granted the manor to Henry, Earl of Arundel, and his heirs, for the sum of £885 12s. 10d. He had only one child, Jane, who married John, Lord Lumley; these died without issue surviving, and the estates passed, 1609, to Splandian Lloyd, Lord Lumley's nearest kinsman, son of his sister Barbara; Splandian died childless, and his brother Henry succeeded, the manor then continuing in his family in direct male line to Robert Lumley Lloyd, D.D. He presented a claim to the peerage, being a direct descendant of Barbara sister and heir of Lord Lumley; it was disallowed on the ground that the barony was limited to John, Lord Lumley, in tail male. Dr. Lloyd died in 1730, and left his estates to his three sisters for their life, with reversion to Lord John Russell, afterwards Duke of Bedford. By him they were sold in 1755 to Edward Northey, in whose family they have remained, the present lord of the manor being the Rev. E. W. Northey of Epsom
Northey. Or a fesse azure between three panthers standing and powdered with stars argent with a pansy or between two lilies argent on the fesse.
It appears that Henry II made another grant of land which later was called a manor, but which does not appear as a separate property after the 13th century. He gave to Maurice de Creon 43s. 1½d. rent to hold of the king in chief as an instalment of 4 librates which he had promised him. Maurice gave the rent to his son-in-law, Guy de la Val, who sub-enfeoffed William St. Michael; this grant was confirmed by the king's writ in 1205, and also on the death of Guy without issue, when the king granted the manor to Peter de Creon son of Maurice to hold of the Crown as his father had done. William St. Michael continued to hold possession until he was disseised in 1222.
Peter was succeeded by his brother Almaric, whose heir, Maurice, lord of Creon, gave all his hereditary right in the manor to Sir Robert Burnell, clerk, and his heirs, to be held of the king by the services due therefrom, and by rendering to Maurice and his heirs 1d. yearly at Easter.
Robert Burnell the same year, 1272, restored the lands to the king, who bestowed them on John de la Linde to be held by him and his heirs by the service of one-fourth part of a knight's fee. From this time the manor seems to have been attached as a member to Wallington.
Two mills at Ewell are mentioned in Domesday, and later there appear to have been more; Adam Tychesey gave one to the Prior and convent of Merton.
There is a reputed manor in Ewell called BOTTALS (Battailes, Buttalls, Butolphs, xvii cent.), of which there is no certain history until 1659, when it was held by Henry Sanders; he sold it to Thomas Turgis, who dying childless left it to his kinsman William Newland. He had no son, and his two surviving daughters were his heirs; they married respectively Philip Cantillon and Robert Dillon, and their children sold the manor to Anthony Chamier of Epsom. He died in 1780 without issue, having left his estates in trust for his wife, and after her decease to his nephew John des Champs or Chamier. They sold it with the manors of Fitznells and Rookesley to Thomas Calverley, whose son Thomas built Ewell Castle on the site of the old family mansion. He was succeeded by his nephew William Bower Monro, who sold the estate to James Gadesden. Mr. James Philip Gadesden of Burley, Newbury, Berks., is the present owner.
As early as 675 we have mention of 30 mansas of land in Ewell, afterwards known as the manor of FITZNELLS (Venelles, Fenelles, xv cent.; Fenys, xvi cent.), being granted by Frithwald sub-regulus of Surrey and Bishop Erkenwald to the newly-founded abbey of Chertsey. In 1331 Robert de FitzNeel died seised of one messuage, 250 acres of land, 6 acres of meadow, and one watermill, which he held after his wife's death of the inheritance of his daughter Grace; of these he held the capital messuage, 100 acres of land, and 4 acres of meadow of the Prior of Merton by the service of 15s., and 50 acres of land and one mill of the Abbot of Chertsey by the service of 6s. 8d. It was from this family that the manor took the name of Fitznells. Robert's daughter Grace had at the time of her father's death a son and heir, Robert, who was probably the father of Robert Leversegge, who died seised of a tenement called Fenelles, lying in the parishes of Ewell, Cuddington, and East Cheam. His son Richard was imbecile from his birth, but held the estate in demesne as of fee until 10 June 1438, on which day John Iwardby (alias Everby) took possession and was succeeded by his son John, who affirmed that his father held the manor of the gift of Robert Leversegge. In 1542 it was held by Dame Joan St. John, who was daughter and heir of Sir John Iwardby, and her son John sold it (1562) to Edmund Horde, in whose family it remained for more than a century, Thomas Horde settling it on his son William in tail male in 1639. The Hordes were holding the manor as late as 1662, when Thomas Horde conveyed it to Jane Hope, widow.
FitzNeel. Paly argent and gules a fesse azure.
Iwardby. Argent a saltire engrailed sable and a chief sable with two molets argent therein.
In 1693 John Harvey and his wife Mary quit-claimed an annual rent in the manor to Thomas Turgis, warranting it against themselves and all other claimants for Edmund and Thomas Horde, deceased. The manor was in the possession of Thomas Turgis at the time of his death, 1704, he having devised it to his kinsman, Mr. William Newland, from which time the history of this manor is the same as that of Bottals and Rookesley.
Horde. Argent a chief or with a raven therein.
There is no mention of the so-called manor of SHAWFORD (Standeford, Shaldeford, Rokesley, xv cent.; Rixley, xvi cent.) until the middle of the 15th century; but as early as 1229 John de Scaldeford is mentioned as owning half a hide of land in Ewell, and twenty years later William de Standeford claimed common of pasture in Ewell, of which his uncle Joceus de Standeford (whose heir he was) was seised as of fee as pertaining to his free tenement in 'Scaldeford,' the day on which he died.
Manning and Bray, quoting an undated deed in the Rawlinson MSS., give a grant by Henry Picot of Chessington of a tenement in 'Schaldeford,' in the parish of Ewell, and of a mill in 'Schaldeford,' in Long Ditton, to John de Rokesle. The witnesses, John d'Abernon and William Ambesas, date the deed about 1297, when those two were knights of the shire.
In 1458-9 Simon Melbourne and others released to John Merston and Rose his wife for the term of their lives, with remainder to William, nephew of the said John, and Anne his wife, all right in the 'manor of Shaldeford alias Rokesley,' formerly called 'Standeford,' in the parish of Ewell, without impeachment of waste. This manor was then worth 5 marks and included a barn worth 4s. and two tenements, 100 acres of land, 26s. 8d. rent in the parishes of Ewell and Cuddington worth 5 marks, and was said to be held of the Prior of Merton, service unknown. John and Rose died so seised and William and Anne entered and were seised in fee tail. William died 26 October 1495, and was succeeded by his son William. About fifty years later it was owned by Edward Jenens, who, dying without issue, left it to his aunt Jane wife of Robert Kempe. Her only daughter and heir married John Wight, and they had one son Rhys. Then it seems to have come into the possession of John, Lord Lumley, at that time lord of Ewell Manor, for in 1593 he quitclaimed it to Margaret Sanders, widow, for the sum of £100.
In 1714 William Newland was holding the manor, and thenceforward its history follows that of the manors of Bottals and Fitznells.
At the Domesday Survey 'the men of the Hundred' deposed that the reeves of the king's manors had abstracted two and a quarter hides of the manor of Ewell with appurtenances. This is believed to be the manor of KINGSWOOD, which Henry II granted with Selswood as parcel of the manor of Ewell to the Prior and canons of Merton. It was augmented by 5 acres of wood granted by Richard de Bures, 1208.
In 1291 the Prior and convent of Merton were granted licence to inclose their wood of Kingswood, which was of their own soil and without the bounds of the forest, and which they held by grant of the king's progenitors.
In 1535 Kingswood Manor was worth £14 6s. 8d., including the perquisites of court valued at 14s. 8d. The manor continued in the priory till its dissolution, when it was annexed by Henry to the honour of Hampton Court. Queen Elizabeth granted it to William Lord Howard of Effingham and Lady Margaret his wife for the service of one-fortieth part of a knight's fee; it descended to their son, who was created Earl of Nottingham. His son Charles died seised of it in 1642, having settled it on his second wife Mary daughter of Sir William Cockayne. She held a court there as lady of the manor. On her death, 1651, the manor should have passed to Sir John Heydon, the reversion of the manor having been granted to him in consideration of the military services of his brother Sir William Heydon, but as Sir John Heydon had been a Royalist officer and died in 1653, it is doubtful if he was ever in possession. His name, according to Manning, does not appear in the court rolls. In 1656 the manor was conveyed by Charles Cockayne and his wife Mary to Sir Thomas Bludworth, another Royalist partisan, who held a court as lord in October 1660. He lived at Flanchford, Reigate (q.v.). He was succeeded by his son Charles, who held his first court 1698, and in 1703 conveyed the manor to Richard Lynch and Thomas Brandon, possibly trustees for Thomas Harris, who held a court in 1708; it then descended to his son Thomas, whose nephew John Hughes in 1791 sold the manor to William Jolliffe, whose son Hylton Jolliffe was owning it in 1804. It was sold about 1830 to Mr. Thomas Alcock, from whose executors it was bought by Sir John Hartopp, and from his trustees by Mr. H. Cosmo Bonsor. The manorial rights are in abeyance.