THE JENKINS AND LUSHINGTON NETWORK

Victorian Studio Photos
Victorian Studio Photos


A major question with some of the photos in this collection is: why were the sitters in Cuthbert Hopkins' studio, or in Epsom at all for that matter? They weren't locals, so must have been visiting something or somebody. Down for the Derby? Assembling for a wedding or funeral? We just don't know, but two threads running through several of these photos are the names of Jenkins and India. It's been a feature of this series that, even though the articles have been done in random order, many of the roads lead from/to India and the Honourable East India Company (HEIC). I think it likely that many of these people knew each other from India and perhaps someone in Epsom or Ewell was hosting an India reunion!

It begins this time with a shot of a youngish woman staring wistfully or thoughtfully into the distance (the original of this was in bad condition but the webmaster has cleaned it up as far as possible). In reality she would have been looking at the skirting board in the studio but the pose is interesting. The wrapper for the picture is confusing. 'Mrs Jenkins' is crossed out and the remaining writing says 'Miss Wardlaw', but the original faint writing has been overwritten, so we can't be sure what it said in the first place: however, we know that the sitter lived at or was visiting The Elms and the 1862 edition of Kelly's Directory tells us that the resident was a John Jenkins Esq. He was not at home in the 1861 census, but his daughter and his three grandsons were and I think that the photo could be his daughter and that the prints were to be sent to the nurse, who had a name which could have had a 'w' at each end, but it is unreadable on the census form. This lady was in her mid- to late 40s so she clearly isn't the person in the photo. However, the residents of The Elms in the early 1860s are the key to other people in the collection.

'Miss Wardlaw'? or possibly Mrs Jane Crawford Jenkins
'Miss Wardlaw'? or possibly Mrs Jane Crawford Jenkins
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Mrs Jane Crawford Jenkins was the daughter of John Jenkins Esq. Confusingly, both her maiden and married names were Jenkins. She was born in Longtown or Netherby (near Carlisle), Cumberland in about 1827, daughter of John and Jane (probably née Lamb). I think Cumberland is a red herring in this saga, since John Jenkins was a Londoner, born in Chiswick around 1805, and he spent much of his earlier life in India as a merchant. Jane Junior married an Edward Jenkins on 15 April 1847 at Fort William, Calcutta. Edward, who was in the HEIC Civil Service, was the son of Richard Boycott Jenkins, which immediately gives us the connection between Jane Junior and a number of the other photos to come.

The problem with John Jenkins the merchant is that most people who have tackled the family tree worked forwards from Jane Crawford Jenkins and nobody seems to have looked backwards at John particularly, although a few people have had a partial stab at it. However, there had been an awful tragedy in the family, as announced in the Hereford Journal of 15 February 1843.
'Drowned, by the wreck of the Conqueror, off Boulogne, Jane, wife of John Jenkins Esq of Calcutta, and three of their children; also the infant son of their brother-in-law, J W H Ibery Esq of Calcutta.'
The Boulogne Gazette (as relayed by The Kentish Gazette of 24 January 1843) reported as follows.
'It is our painful duty to record the loss of another East Indiaman a few miles east of where the Reliance went on shore a few weeks ago. On Thursday night last the Conqueror, 800 tons, Captain Duggan, from Calcutta, laden with rum, sugar, silk and a general cargo, struck off Lornel, at the entrance of the Canche, about half-past ten o'clock. All night blue lights, rockets and other signals of distress were fired, but in vain; such was the awful state of the sea and the fury of the wind that no possible assistance could be rendered to them. In this dreadful state they remained until Friday morning at nine o'clock, when the vessel went to pieces. We regret to say that, out of the crew and passengers, in all 80 persons, only one boy was saved.'
The paper went on to list some of the passengers and stated that the body of Mrs Jenkins had, amongst others, been picked up and taken to Boulogne for burial. Two of Mrs Jenkins' servants also drowned.

A despatch in the London Evening Standard of 21 January 1843 had this to add, the tragedy being that the Conqueror had almost been home when the weather hit.
'…Captain Duggan made the Lizard Light on Monday night and on Tuesday fell in with an English fishing boat and took one man from her on board to give any information required, the boat being engaged to land the passengers, the wind increasing to a terrific gale. The ship was occasionally scudding and lying to until Friday night.

'…for nearly three days the hatches could not be taken off, owing to the heavy seas breaking over her, and that after being two days without water they were obliged to break through the bulkhead in the hold to get at it. Cooking for passengers or crew was not attempted. It appears that neither the fishermen nor Captain Duggan knew what part of the French coast they were on until the lights of Lornel were seen, and was endeavouring to wear off shore when the ship struck.'
Note: Oddly, or perhaps not, given the many coincidences and connections thrown up by this series of articles, the owner of the Conqueror was one Richard Green of Blackwall, half-brother to Elizabeth, Mrs Thomas Alers Hankey of Epsom.

In 1861 Mr Jenkins was away visiting a family in Wallingford and in 1871 he was staying at Stoke next Guildford with his son, Major John Hadow Jenkins of the Bengal Staff Corps. In 1881 he surfaced in Tonbridge, still a widower, but with a battery of children (sons and a daughter) ranging in age from 12 to three. There does seem to be a marriage for him on 22 December 1886, when he was 82 years old according to the certificate; the bride was a much younger woman, Mary Ann Taylor, 42, a spinster. It also seems that the little girl definitely belonged to her, so I presume that the boys did too. There is clearly something clandestine with all this but at any rate we do know that John died at Frithknowl, Elstree on 1 October 1887. It looks to me as if Ms Taylor was being 'kept' in a house in Belgravia (1881 census, 71 Warwick Street, Mary A Taylor), claiming that she was a married woman. It is hard to fathom why John hadn't married her long before he did, but I have come across this sort of thing before - it would have been a 'class' issue, whereby an ageing 'gentleman' fathered many children by a younger girl perceived to be from a lower class and provided for them all but didn't marry her when he could have. There was a similar case in Epsom, and, even though the whole town must have known all about it, given the size of central Epsom in Victorian times and the prominence of the 'gentleman', outward respectability apparently dictated that there would be no marriage. My cousin and I - he is much more directly related to the 'gentleman' than I - speculate that the old man was hiding behind some sort of screen at St Martin's when his eleven illegitimate children were christened. Anyway, to finish up on this second family of John Jenkins, Mary Ann and most of the children were to be found on the 1901 Canadian census in Medicine Hat, Alberta.

Returning to Edward and Jane Crawford Jenkins, two sons were born in India - Edward Boycott (23 June 1849 Calcutta) and Herbert Charles (7 September 1851 Howrah). The family was in England on furlough in the mid-1850s and another son, Arthur Francis, arrived on 12 April 1855 in London and was christened at St James, Paddington in the October. Sadly, though, he died on 27 May 1856 at Gloucester Place, Hyde Park.

I think Edward was probably in indifferent health, like many of the British who lived/worked in India and on 22 June 1859 he died at Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, aged 36. Jane was heavily pregnant at the time and gave birth to another son, Atherton Edward, in Brighton on 31 July.

I shall park this family for the moment, since we need to bring in the other Jenkins family, who didn't live in our area, but most of them went to Cuthbert's studio for portraits during what we shall call the Grand India Reunion for want of any better information.

The other Jenkins family


I mentioned earlier that Edward Jenkins was the son of Richard Boycott Jenkins (born c.1788 Pontesbury, Shropshire) and there were other sons, but there were also daughters, one of whom was Jane Helen Jenkins, born on 4 February 1824 in Nagpur, where her father was a Major in the Nagpur Brigade. Her mother was Eliza (née Ord, born c.1796 London, died 1866 Herefordshire). Richard and Eliza were married in 1820 at Rypoor, Madras and a name that will become relevant is listed in the witnesses - P Vans Agnew.

Jane Helen married Charles Ansell Lushington in India on 13 November 1845; her father, then a Lieutenant-Colonel, had died in 1843. Charles was born in 1821 in Trichinopoly, Madras and was the son of Charles May Lushington, who in turn was the son of the Rev. James Stephen Lushington. (Trust me, you will need to know this later on!) Charles Ansell was in the Bengal Civil Service. A daughter, Catherine, was born on 17 February 1847 and christened at Fort William and then Charles died at Howrah on 23 October of that year, aged only 26. Jane Helen was a few weeks pregnant at the time and travelled home to her mother, who was living in Lee, Kent. Another daughter, Elizabeth Helen Ansell, was born on 18 June 1848 in Lee.

Since we are with this particular Jenkins contingent, we shall take the Vans Agnew detour as an example of the perils facing officials in India at the time and the aftermath thereof. As I said, a P Vans Agnew was a witness at the wedding of Richard Boycott Jenkins and Eliza Ord back in 1820. He was in fact Lt. Col. Patrick Vans Agnew of the Madras Army, a Director of the HEIC. Two of his sons were Patrick Alexander and John.

Patrick Alexander, born in 1822, unwittingly and tragically played a critical role in the demise of the HEIC as an independent, not to mention autocratic, entity. He was by all accounts an extremely able and promising administrator in the Bengal Civil Service. Early in 1848, as assistant to the Resident at Lahore, he went to Multan (now in Pakistan) to hand over government of the province to a Sikh called Khan Singh; he was then to remain there as political agent and sort out the infrastructure. He was accompanied by Lt. Anderson of the Bombay Army and an escort of Sikh troops. After a slight contretemps with the outgoing ruler of Multan, Mulraj, he and Anderson were attacked by supporters of Mulraj and the Lieutenant was seriously injured. Both of them were placed in a fortified temple by their attendants, but the following day they were slaughtered, the Sikh troops having defected to Mulraj.

Vans Agnew's monument at Multan Fort
Vans Agnew's monument at Multan Fort
Photograph by Junaidahmadj via Wikimedia(CC BY-SA 3.0)

The outrage at Multan led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War between the HEIC and the Sikh Empire, which in turn caused the British to annexe the Punjab. After their defeat, the Sikhs largely remained loyal to the British (and we shall return to that subject in due course because of another photo in the collection). Following the Indian Mutiny of 1857 the British Government passed the Government of India Act (1858), liquidating the assets of the Company and passing all its powers etc to the Crown. This was not, of course, the end of the British in India, far from it, but it was effectively the end of the Company. I am not sure that is as definite as it sounds, for the Company had been in decline for some time and the Crown had long been involved in the administration of India anyway, but at least the British Government was now officially in charge.

Mrs Jane Helen Lushington had remarried on 27 September 1854 at Christ Church, Lee and her new husband was Captain James Drummond Telfer This could be sub-titled 'A tangled tale of Telfers', since several people have come up with theories on the family background, including some dubious information about the parentage of our man. However, I do know that he was born in Malta.

James Drummond Telfer
James Drummond Telfer
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Mrs Jane Helen Telfer (formerly Lushington, née Jenkins)
Mrs Jane Helen Telfer (formerly Lushington, née Jenkins)
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

I think that the Captain's parents were Buchan Fraser Telfer (born c.1782, died 1860), originally from Edinburgh but for many years the Deputy Commissary General in Malta, and Caterina Cocozzi (c.1795-1870). There were several children who are not relevant here, but our man was born in 1824 and joined the Royal Artillery. I am not sure if he was ever stationed in India, but, being regular army and not HEIC, he may not have been. In any case, his active military career did not last all that long and as early as the 1850s he was performing other roles, including being Governor of the Hereford County Gaol and then Chief Constable of Herefordshire, holding the latter position until he resigned in 1895.

Captain Telfer and family lived at The Mount in Tupsley, Herefordshire and also in Tupsley at the time was the family of John Vans Agnew, brother of the murdered Patrick Alexander. John had married Frances (Fanny) Jenkins on 27 December 1852 at Calcutta Cathedral, Frances being the younger sister of Mrs Lushington/Telfer.

Here's another little puzzle for us. We have two photos labelled 'Miss Telfer', but there wasn't one, so an incorrect assumption was made by the labeller. In fact, they must be Miss Lushington, but which one? I can't make up my mind if these are both of the same girl or two different girls. They are dressed identically, so you can decide.

Miss Lushington, either Catherine or Elizabeth Helen Ansell
Miss Lushington, either Catherine or Elizabeth Helen Ansell
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Miss Lushington, either Catherine or Elizabeth Helen Ansell
Miss Lushington, either Catherine or Elizabeth Helen Ansell
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

The Telfers had one child of their own - Charles Edward Drummond Telfer, born in September 1855, and I do not want to go too far with the Telfers, since they were not local. However, to finish them off, they later added another surname of Smollett, which came from an ancestor of the Captain's - the author Tobias Smollett - and there was an inheritance involved. Jane Helen Telfer Smollett died at their home, Cameron House, Alexandria, Dumbarton on 24 January 1900, followed by her husband on 27 February 1909.

Charles Edward Drummond Telfer
Charles Edward Drummond Telfer
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Charles Edward Drummond Telfer Smollett was the father of Major-General Alexander Patrick Drummond Telfer-Smollett CB CBE DSO MC DL.

Major Alexander Patrick Drummond Telfer-Smollett MC.
Major Alexander Patrick Drummond Telfer-Smollett MC.
Image Source © IWM (HU 118934)

Charles Edward barely outlived his parents. On 27 August 1912 he was travelling in a motor car with others on the road between Beith and Lochwinnoch in Renfrewshire. The driver swerved to avoid a horse and cart, hit a telegraph pole and the car overturned. The others were unhurt but Charles suffered catastrophic injuries and died on his way to hospital.

As for the Lushington girls, Catherine, the elder, married Lt. Col. Charles May Allen Morant (I know what you're thinking - we've met the forenames of Charles May before, and you're right, because his mother was Barbara Wilson Lushington, a daughter of William John Lushington and grand-daughter of the Rev. James Stephen Lushington, father of Charles May Lushington). I have found on previous occasions that the British in India liked to keep things in the family. We shall need to climb up this particular family tree again shortly, but let's stay on terra firma for now. So, the Morants then embarked for Karnataka. Several children were born there but by 1881 Catherine was living in Torquay, the youngest child being two years old. She seems to have been with her husband still, since more children were born in England, and I imagine that he was away periodically on military matters. Anyway, he died in Renmark, South Australia on 3 September 1911. Catherine, having pitched up in Kent, survived until 22 December 1914.

Elizabeth Helen Ansell Lushington married William (Willie) Walker Loch (Bombay Civil Service), so back to India they went and several children followed. Willie died on 24 June 1928, then resident in Kensington, followed by Elizabeth on 26 September 1931.

Back to the first Jenkins family


Having disposed of the Tupsley Telfers et al, we may return to Mrs Jane Crawford Jenkins of The Elms. I think we also have a Lushington connection here, though, so I had better explain from the outset. We need to go back up the tiresome tree to the 17th century but you needn't come with me. Suffice it to say that a Stephen Lushington of Kent was married twice. His first wife was Catherine Godfrey, who died after giving birth to Thomas Godfrey Lushington (died 1757). Thomas is the line that comes down through James Stephen, Charles May and Charles Ansell and thence to Tupsley etc.

Stephen of Kent married again - to a Jane Petley; the second Mrs L was rather more durable and produced quite a few offspring, one of whom, to cut a long story as short as possible, eventually brings us to Stephen Lushington of Ockham Park, Woking and I am immensely grateful that this bit has already been covered by Exploring Surrey's Past.

Stephen leased Ockham Park from the 1st Earl of Lovelace, and there is also a potted history of his family and life on Exploring Surrey's Past. Lovelace was William King (later William King-Noel), born in 1805. His first wife was Augusta Ada Byron (known as Ada), only legitimate child of George Gordon, Lord Byron, and she was something of a mathematical genius, being a pioneer of computing principles She and her husband had three children before she died of cancer of the uterus in 1852, aged 36.

William King Noel
William King Noel, 1st Earl of Lovelace
Lord-Lieutenant of Surrey
A carte-de-visite photograph by Henry Hering
Image source: NPG x197973 (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

On 28 March 1865 at St James, Paddington Jane Crawford Jenkins married Lord Lovelace and thus became a Countess. It seems they had originally met in India. They had one child, Lionel Fortescue King-Noel, born later that same year at East Horsley.

By 1871 the Lovelaces were ensconced in East Horsley Towers with servants galore and there they remained until the Earl died in 1893. His son by his first marriage, Ralph Gordon King Noel Milbanke, succeeded to the Earldom but lasted only until 1906, when the title passed to Lionel, his son by Jane.

Horsley Towers over the Meadow
Horsley Towers over the Meadow
Image source: © Colin Smith and licensed for reuse (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Lionel was married to Lady Edith Anson, a daughter of the 2nd Earl of Lichfield and their son, Peter Malcolm, became the 4th Earl Lovelace when Lionel died in 1929.

Before I tell you about Jane's older children, Edward, Herbert and Atherton, I want to go back to Cuthbert's studio and show you two more photographs. The first of these is of a man whose name is still known in the context of India - Thomas Rattray, founder of 'Rattray's Sikhs'. Rattray had been with the Bengal Military Police and raised this regiment as an elite force which was loyal to the British and played an important part in quelling the Indian Mutiny of 1857/8. The regiment had various names throughout its existence but is usually referred to as the 45th Rattray's Sikhs.

Major Thomas Rattray
Major Thomas Rattray
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

I don't know why Major Rattray was in Epsom, but I imagine it had something to do with Bengal connections, since the extended Jenkins clan was so involved with Bengal, as were a fair number of other Epsom and Ewell residents of that era (e.g. the Milletts of Tayles Hill). However, there does seem to be a later marriage between a Rattray and a Lushington.

Photo of 45th Rattray's Sikhs with prisoners from the second Second Anglo-Afghan War
Photo of 45th Rattray's Sikhs with prisoners from the Second Anglo-Afghan War
Image source Wikipedia

Men like Rattray were at the very sharpest end of complicated, volatile India: it was then a vast country, incorporating what are now Pakistan and Bangladesh; the British also dabbled heavily in Afghanistan. All of these regions had multiple religions and cultures and local rulers/leaders. Not all of it was under control of the HEIC either and, even where it was, it wasn't always under proper control - there were frequent mutinies, incursions and other problems. We have already seen what happened to Patrick Alexander Vans Agnew and Rattray's brother, Charles, was also murdered, this time in Afghanistan in 1841. Another brother, James Rattray, served in India and was a rather good artist: you can see some of his works on Wikimedia Commons.

And this next gentleman is Colonel Montgomery. There weren't that many Colonel Montgomerys floating about and 'favourite' is George Samuel Montgomery, who was also with the Bengal Police for some time and served through the Indian Mutiny, as did Rattray. Another, but less likely, possibility, is Colonel Alexander Barry Montgomery, but I think he is much too old to be this man and he wasn't so closely connected with India. We are open to suggestions as to this person's identity, but we think he is associated with Rattray because Cuthbert's props in both photos are identical and both men are dressed in similar clothing, suggesting that the shots were taken at the same time and that both men were attending something for which such an outfit was the appropriate dress.

Colonel Montgomery
Colonel Montgomery
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Edward, Herbert and Atherton Jenkins


Atherton is perhaps the most interesting of the three sons from Jane Crawford Jenkins' first marriage. He was a career soldier, becoming a Colonel in the Rifle Brigade. His wife was Anna Isabella Schoenbrunn Cassel, a niece of Sir Ernest Cassel. The couple had one daughter, Marjorie Minna, who had several claims to fame: she was a close friend of and cousin to Edwina Ashley, subsequently Countess Mountbatten of Burma, Superintendent-in-Charge of the St John's Ambulance Brigade and Lady-in-Waiting to the late Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent. She was made DBE in 1967 and had been married to John Pratt, Earl of Brecknock and son of the 4th Marquess Camden; this marriage ended in divorce.

Marchioness of Camden and Countess Mountbatten of Burma
Marjorie (née Jenkins), Marchioness of Camden;
Edwina Cynthia Annette (née Ashley), Countess Mountbatten of Burma
Photograph by by Bassano Ltd 12 July 1910
Image Source NPG x103783 (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Atherton and family lived at Wherwell Priory, near Andover. Atherton died on 28 January 1945 and Anna Isabella on 5 March 1959. Marjorie survived until 1989.

Edward Boycott Jenkins was a barrister; his wife was Lady Margaret Albinia Grace Graham-Toler, daughter of the Earl of Norbury (Ireland). Edward died on 1 May 1915 and Margaret on 8 September 1926.

Herbert was also a soldier, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the 17th Lancers and a participant in various volunteer units. He was married to Williamina (Minnie) Agnes Mellis. They died in Kent on 7 February 1914 and 15 June 1948 respectively.

The Dowager Countess Lovelace.


After the death of her husband on 29 December 1893, Jane Crawford Jenkins lived to see her son Lionel succeed to the Earldom, by virtue of the fact that Ralph, the 2nd Earl, died unexpectedly at East Horsley Towers on 28 August 1906. According to newspaper reports, 'he died with dramatic suddenness. He was passing from the drawing-room to the verandah when, without warning, he fell to the ground and expired. He was apparently in perfect health'. Jane died at her London home, 33-34 Parkside, Knightsbridge on 27 January 1908. She was buried in the Lovelace Mausoleum at St Martin's, East Horsley with her husband and Ralph, Lionel and his son, Peter, were also interred there in due course.

Tomb of William, Earl of Lovelace
Tomb of William, Earl of Lovelace, St Martin's churchyard, East Horsley.
Image source: © Colin Smith and licensed for reuse (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Linda Jackson 2018