'by the steward with the consent of the tenants of the manor did grant licence to George Parsons to dig and make bricks and tyles in the common or waste of this manor near the place called Somersgates for the term of five years, John Parsons to pay 5s per annum to the churchwardens of Ebesham for the tyme being to the use of the poore of the parish of Ebesham and provided also so as the said George Parsons or any other do not make bricke and tyle or digge above the quantity of ten rods of ground in any one yeare of the said terme, and so as he fill up all such pits as he shall digge for the earth, when and by use cattell [cattle] shall receive wrong by reason thereof, and it is further provided and agreed that the lord of the manor aforesaid shall at any time during the said term have for his own proper use as many tyles and bricks made of the said earth as he pleaseth at the rate of 10s per 1000 for bricke and 12s per 1000 for tyles well burnt and merchantable'.
"1291.The Soil most suitable for making Bricks is a clayey loam. The surface should be removed from it in the autumn, and the subsoil dug up, and mixed with about one sixth part of coal-ashes, during the winter; the whole being, during this season, exposed to the weather. In spring, it is turned over once or twice, and, after all risk is past from frost, the clay is prepared or worked, either by chopping and beating it, as dough is worked and kneaded by a baker, or by passing it through a mill, called a pug-mill, which effects the same object mechanically. The mass being sufficiently mixed and kneaded, it is laid on a table sprinkled with dry sand, from which it is taken in small portions, and pressed into moulds of the shape of the brick or tile which it is desired to form. These are first dried in the sun, or in the open air, under sheds, and afterwards burned
1292. Clamp-kilns for burning Bricks are nothing more than stacks or masses, composed of bricks, interspersed with layers of coal cinders. The first three or four layers or courses of bricks are placed on edge, diagonalwise, an inch or more asunder, and the superincumbent course breaking joint; the second, third, and fourth courses on edge over them are also placed diagonalwise, and so as to leave considerable interstices for being filled up with the cinders. Thus, the lower part of the clamp, or kiln, is formed of about three fourths of the cubic contents of imperfectly burned bricks, and one fourth of coal cinders in the interstices between them. The superincumbent part of the clamp is formed of new-moulded bricks set close together on edge, every layer having a stratum of half an inch of small ashes placed under it. The size of the kiln is without limit as to length and breadth; but it is found that the weight of more than fifteen or twenty courses of unburned bricks, laid one over the other, will crush or deform those at the bottom. In placing the lower stratum of four courses of open brickwork and cinders, there is a kind of horizontal tunnel, or channel, continued through the work upon the ground, about a foot broad, and eighteen inches high, which is filled with wood and coal, to serve as the means of lighting the cinders among the bricks on each side. When the contents of this tunnel are once thoroughly lighted, its ends are closed up with brick or clay. The stack or clamp is carried up in sections, or vertical strata, of between three and four feet in thickness; and when as many bricks are put together as it is desired to burn, the whole is surrounded by a double casing of refuse bricks, or such as are imperfectly formed, for the purpose of keeping in the heat, as well as of, to a certain extent, re-burning them. A clamp-kiln generally continues burning twenty days, and is used for burning bricks only."